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Section 1: Bodywork and Aerodynamics
- Physics of Formula 1 racing
- Drag and Downforce
- Formula 1 Wind Tunnel
- CFD v Wind Tunnel
Section 2: Mechanical Components
- Engine of a Formula 1 car
- Tyres of a Formula 1 Car
- Brakes of a Formula 1 car
Section 3: Communication, Electronics and Software Systems
- Steering Wheel of a Formula 1Car
- Electronic Control Unit of a Formula 1 Car
- Traction Control of a Formula 1 Car
- Launch Control of a Formula 1 Car
Section 1: Formula 1 – a sport and a multi-million dollar business
- Motorsport - What a Business
- Formula 1 for India
Section 1: Bodywork and Aerodynamics
The most visible element of a Formula 1 car are its aerodynamic features. Aerodynamics have become key to success in the sport and teams spend tens of millions of dollars on research and development in the field each year. From the front wing to the rear, everything is geared towards creating the best aerodynamic efficiency, so that the car literally slice through the air.
The primary concern of a aerodynamic designer is to shape airflow over, under and around the car so as to create downforce ,to help push the car's tyres onto the track and improve cornering forces; and minimizing the drag that gets caused by turbulence and acts to slow the car down. Not only is airflow crucial in generating downforce with the lowest possible drag coefficient, but also serves to cool several systems including brakes, engine and transmission. Aerodynamic designer have become obsessed with the tiniest of details, and that's no surprise when you consider that a nosecone-mounted aerial with an excessively big diameter can cost the equivalent of around 10bhp in engine power. Yet this does not mean that Formula 1 cars are profiled like razor-sharp arrows their large, exposed wheels produce turbulence that makes them as about as aerodynamic as a tank. Also designers can't just make their cars too 'slippery', as a good supply of airflow has to be ensured to help dissipate the vast amounts of heat produced by a modern Formula One engine.
Every single surface of a modern Formula 1 car, from the shape of the suspension links to that of the driver's helmet - has its aerodynamic effects considered. Disrupted air, where the flow 'separates' from the body, creates turbulence which creates drag - which slows the car down.
Race car wings operate on exactly the same principle as aircraft wings, only in reverse. The basic equation aerodynamic designer face is simple: to inverse the physical principle that enables a plane to stay airborne. Air flows at different speeds over the two sides of the wing and this creates a difference in pressure, a physical rule known as Bernoulli's Principle. As this pressure tries to balance, the wing tries to move in the direction of the low pressure. Planes use their wings to create lift, race cars use theirs to create downforce. A modern Formula One car is capable of developing 4 g lateral cornering force due to aerodynamic downforce. The amount of pressure that is produced is so great that, at approximately 250 kmh, an Formula 1 race car could drive inverted on the ceiling.
Formula 1 teams use supercomputing technology to help design, test and evaluate their bodywork components.
The bodywork and aerodynamics of a Formula one car can be divided into Front Wing , Rear Wing , Diffuser , Side Pods , Safety Cell , Airbox
A. Physics of Formula 1 racing
The principles which allow aircraft to fly are also applicable in Formula 1 car. The only difference being the wing or airfoil shape is mounted upside down producing downforce instead of lift. The Bernoulli Effect means that: if a fluid (gas or liquid) flows around an object at different speeds, the slower moving fluid will exert more pressure than the faster moving fluid on the object. The object will then be forced toward the faster moving fluid. The wing of an airplane is shaped so that the air moving over the top of the wing moves faster than the air beneath it. Since the air pressure under the wing is greater than that above the wing, lift is produced. The shape of the Indy car exhibits the same principle. The shape of the chasis is similar to an upside down airfoil. The air moving under the car moves faster than that above it, creating downforce or negative lift on the car. Airfoils or wings are also used in the front and rear of the car in an effort to generate more downforce. Downforce is necessary in maintaining high speeds through the corners and forces the car to the track. Light planes can take off at slower speeds than a ground effects race car can generate on the track. A Formula 1 ground effect car can reach speeds in excess of 230 mph using downforce. In addition the shape of the underbody (an inverted wing) creates an area of low pressure between the bottom of the car and the racing surface. This sucks the car to road which results in higher cornering speeds.
The total aerodynamic package of the Formula 1car is emphasized now more than ever before. Teams that plan on staying competitive use track testing and wind tunnels to develop the most efficient aerodynamic design. The focus of their efforts is on the aerodynamic forces of negative lift or downforce and drag. The relationship between drag and downforce is especially important. Aerodynamic improvements in wings are directed at generating downforce on the race car with a minimum of drag. Downforce is necessary for maintaining speed through the corners. Unwanted drag which accompanies downforce will slow the car. The efficient design of a chassis is based on a downforce/drag compromise. In addition the specific race circuit will place a different demand on the aerodynamic setup of the car.
Slower and twister tracks such as Monaco requires a car setup with a high downforce package. A high downforce package is necessary to maintain speeds in the corners and to reduce wear on the brakes. This setup includes large front and rear wings. The front wings have additional flaps which are adjustable. The rear wing is made up of three sections that maximize downforce.
Setup for a high speed circuits such as Monza looks much different. The front and rear wings are almost flat and are used as stabilizers. The major downforce is found in the shape of the body and underbody. Drag reduction is more critical on the speedway than on other circuits. Since the drag force is proportional to the square of the speed, minimizing drag is a primary concern in the speedway setup. Lap speeds can average over 228 mph and top speeds can exceed 240 mph on a speedway circuit. Effective use of downforce is especially pronounced in high speed corners. A race car traveling at 200 mph. can generate downforce that is approximately twice its own weight.
Generating the necessary downforce is concentrated in three specific areas of the car front wing assembly, chasis, rear wing assembly . The ongoing challenge for team engineers is to fine tune the airflow around these areas.
The front wing assembly is constructed of carbon fiber and is the first part of the car to meet the air mass. The flow field here is better than at other parts of the car because the air here has been disturbed the least. The wing is designed to produce downforce and guide the air as it moves toward the body and rear of the car. Flaps and winglets may also be used to guide the air past the wheels to the radiator inlets and underbody. The chassis is designed to produce maximum downforce, while at the same time minimizing drag. Downforce produced by the front and rear wings and the underbody, allow maximum speeds through the corners. To accomplish this the top of the car is designed to slice through the air, while the underbody is shaped to create an area of low pressure between the underbody and the track. The rear wing is made of carbon fiber and is attached to the transmission housing. The rear wing configuration is determined by the type of circuit being raced on. The objective is to achieve the best downforce/drag compromise possible.
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B. Drag and Downforce
The primary task of aerodynamicists is to find downforce – the vertical force that pushes cars to the ground by forming a zone of low pressure underneath its wings – and to minimise drag, the associated longitudinal force that resists the car's forward movement.
Aero foils in motorsports are often called wings, referring to aircraft wings. Formula 1 wings and winglets aim to generate high downforce, by having a high angle of attack, thus also increasing the drag of the aerofoil. The evolution of an airfoil to what it is now is mainly due to Bernoulli and Newton, who initially had totally different views on generating downforce.
When a gas flows over an object (or when an object moves through a gas), the molecules of the gas are free to move around. They are not closely bound to one another as in a solid. Because the molecules move, there is a velocity (speed plus direction) associated with the gas. Within the gas, the velocity can have very different values at different places near the object. Bernoulli's equation relates the pressure on the object to the local velocity; so as the velocity changes around the object, the pressure changes as well, in the opposite way.
Now adding up the velocity variation around the object instead of the pressure variation also determines the aerodynamic force. The integrated velocity variation around the object produces a net turning of the gas flow.
From Newton's third law of motion, a turning action of the flow will result in a re-action (aerodynamic force) on the object.
So both "Bernoulli" and "Newton" are correct. Integrating the effects of either the pressure or the velocity determines the aerodynamic force on an object. These two equations have lead to the current airfoils used and make optimal use of both theories.
Drag coefficients (CD) in aerodynamics are drag forces normalized with a reference area, usually the frontal area, another projection area or the wetted area. Sometimes the reference area is not given, so the drag coefficient is a misleading figure.
The actual values of the CD of particular devices are confidential by nature. The drag force, instead, is more clearly identified.
Table below shows CD for few objects , which can be considered as an average values
|Drag Coefficients for few objects
|Subsonic Aircraft Wing, minimum 
|Supersonic Fighter, M=2.5
|Man (upright position)
||1.0 - 1.3
||1.2 - 1.3
||1.0 - 1.1
||1.0 - 1.4
The formula to calculate the aerodynamic drag force of an object is as follows,
F = ½ CDAV²
F - Aerodynamic drag force
C - Coefficient of drag
D - Density of air
A - Frontal area
V - Velocity of object
Here D as air density is expressed in kg/m³. The frontal area is the surface of the object viewed from a point that object is going to. It's expressed in m³. The velocity should be placed in m/s, where 1m/s is 3,6km/h.
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C. Formula 1 Wind Tunnel
Wind tunnels are the tried and tested research route of gaining aerodynamic efficiency in a Formula 1 car. Wind tunnels in general are used for testing purposes and aerodynamical optimization. They are specially designed to simulate airflow like in open air and flow velocity as close as possible to reality. It is of great importance to avoid non uniformities, because a slight difference in airflow may change the behavior of the tested object, and furthermore provide false information to the aerodynamicists, who consequently make the wrong decisions.
The principle of wind tunnel is simple. A flow of air is projected at controlled speeds over a model of the car, the scale of which can vary between 50% and 100%. This replica is placed on a rolling road that is even capable of simulating irregularities in the track surface. The pressure exerted on the car is permanently measured with the help of hundreds of probes fitted to the model which itself is able to reproduce all the phases of a real car in action: cornering, body-roll, weight transfer.
Airflow is generated by an enormous fan measuring at least 5 metres in diameter and the speed of the wind can reach as high as 250kph. Temperature is controlled to the nearest half degree, while the level of humidity is also closely monitored since both these parameters effectively have an influence on aerodynamic efficiency. A set of computers allows the engineers to interpret the data they collect. Each Formula 1 team has a special department to look after the production of the scale models, the quality of which dictates the reliability of the information obtained.
There are in fact two main types of wind tunnels. One type is called open circuit tunnels with an air entry open to the atmosphere. The best way to construct such a tunnel is a blower configuration, where a fan is located at the entry of the tunnel, and blows the air into it. Although the entry swirl is a possible problem, blower tunnels are in general much less sensitive to entry conditions than suckdown tunnels. The exit flow from a centrifugal blower is nonuniform and turbulent, but without the low-frequency unsteadiness of flow entering directly from a room. This type of wind tunnel is not considered to be the first choice for Formula 1 development.
The most interesting type of tunnels is the closed circuit wind tunnels which are also called as "racecourse" or "closed-return". These are the usual choice for Formula 1 teams. This type of wind tunnels are usually powered by axial fan and have more uniform flow, in principle, than open circuit tunnels but care is needed to maintain good flow at the entrance to the contraction. The flow at exit from the fourth corner (counting from the test section) is typically not much better than the exit flow from a centrifugal blower, although the corner vanes themselves have some effect in reducing turbulence (they can be regarded as honeycombs with walls in one direction only).
In closed circuit tunnels airspeed ranges between 10 and 100 m/s approximately, and the same air is recirculated. The stream is turned, typically by 4 90° corners, each provided with turning vanes placed aside of each other, to prevent turbulence in the corners.
There is always a small vent, called a "breather", somewhere in the closed circuit so that the internal pressure does not increase as the air heats up during the run. The breather is best located in a part of circuit where inner air is close to atmospheric pressure. Usually that is around the perimeter at the downstream end of the test section. This compensating inflow through the breather is bad for diffuser performance but easy to detect by releasing smoke just outside the breather.
As mentioned above closed-circuit tunnels are usually driven by axial-flow fans, which produce a static pressure rise (with no appreciable change in axial velocity or dynamic pressure). The design of axial fans for tunnels is a very complex matter. It is why F1 wind tunnels usually have a specially designed fan to maximize the performance and decrease side effects. Because shockwaves might disturb regular airflow at fans with a high tip-speed (axial speed at the tip of a fan blade), fans are developed to keep to tip-speed as low as possible, not more than two or three times the local axial velocity. This causes the blade arrangements to resemble to an axial-flow compressor, with a stator row in front of the rotor. As a return to uniform, non-swirling flow is necessary; the diameter of the central nacelle (in which the engine may reside) is kept relatively small, rarely exceeding 50% of the fan diameter. As a result the space between adjacent blades, measured around the circumference, varies considerably from root to tip.F1 wind tunnel fans are usually mounted downstream of the second corner, where the cross-sectional area is two or more times that of the test section. A large fan can run at a lower speed to generate the same airflow, thus needing less rpm and reducing vibration, noise and power consumption.
Formula 1 needs high performance, so wind tunnels have special features that increase testing abilities. Some of the special features of Formula 1 wind tunnels are as follows,
Rolling road: The floor of the wind tunnel testing area is made to simulate the track. The idea is to make the track move under the car at the same speed as the air flows around the car. The simulation is now complete with rotating real tyres.
Tyres rotate rapidly at 300km/h, and they are thereby generating a lot of turbulence. The airflow around the wheels is substantially different with rotating wheels compared to a measurement with static floor.
Ride height simulation: When testing a Formula one car, it is fixed to stay in its position with a carbon bar fixed to the car above the air happer. These bars have hydraulic systems that allow engineers to adjust ride height with a precision of 0.01 mm, thereby also measuring the resistance provided by the suspension.
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D. CFD v Wind Tunnel
Aerodynamics is the most important part of the Formula 1 design package. Formula 1 teams spend a lot of time and money on aerodynamics alone. The goal is to optimize the ratio between downforce, which helps cars corner, and drag, which slows them down. Modern teams refine their cars for every race, adding larger front and rear inverted wings for twisty tracks where cornering speed is important, and reducing them for tracks with long straightaways where minimizing drag is paramount.
There are two research route to gain aerodynamic efficiency in a Formula 1 car. First one is the tried and tested wind tunnel and the second one is the increasingly popular mathematical modeling process, Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD).
Formula 1 teams started taking aerodynamics development seriously only during late nineties. The predominant importance of aerodynamics in the performance of a Formula 1 car has led all teams to invest heavily in wind tunnels and the aim is to create the most accurate wind tunnels. Some teams even have a fullsize facility but at present this cannot actually be used in fullscale because of blockage problems associated with airflow round the sides of the car in the tunnel. Most of the teams have their own wind tunnels which operates 17 hours a day, seven days a week.
Though wind tunnels will certainly continue to play crucial roles for many years to come, but the really long-term bet may be Computational Fluid Dynamics, or CFD. By developing the right mathematical model, designers and aerodynamicists can predict with tremendous accuracy what a fullscale model is likely to do at any given speed.
Computational fluid dynamics is the name given to the field of study that involves modeling air flows around objects like race cars using computers. Designers in industries as diverse as aviation, shipbuilding, and refinery construction have used CFD to model creations, that, in practice, would be very difficult and expensive to build, test, and modify. But in case of Formula 1 CFD is still in its infancy as compared to wind tunnels.
In Formula 1, CFD is still used in conjunction with wind tunnels. Most of the teams have tried CFD for quite some time and most have been getting some reasonable results from it and have found it to accelerate development . But it's a long way from being a replacement for a wind tunnel.
It is a very time consuming job to do a CFD model of a complete car. The real benefit of CFD comes when we take simple parts of a Formula 1 car. For example if we take a rear wing, with CFD you can probably do 50 rear wings in the time it would take you to do a couple in the wind tunnel.
CFD is an example of a fine-grained computational problem and typically requires very serious hardware resources to run simulations in a useful amount of time. For example , the last generation of supercomputers sometimes required weeks to model the flow of gas through a valve. The fascinating thing about Formula 1 is high technology, but even more the speed of development, With Formula 1 races every week, designers and engineers try every means to reduce the amount of time to design, test, and refine aerodynamic designs. These days teams use Linux cluster using hundreds of processors and a low-latency, high-speed interconnect to do CFD models, which dramatically shortens the development cycle.
One of the most significant changes we can expect as the century evolves is the development of CFD, perhaps even to the point where wind tunnels become redundant.
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Section 2: Mechanical Components
A Formula 1 car is not just a racing car; it's a feat of engineering excellence. Hidden under the streamlined body is a world - class engine, transmission and suspension system and these are some of the most highly stressed pieces of machinery on the planet, and the competition to have the most power on the grid is still intense. The engine of a Formula 1 car is considered to be the most advanced engine in the world providing approximately 900 horsepower.
Mechanical components of a Formula 1 car are divided into Engine, Transmission, Suspension, Exhaust, Fuel Tank, Brakes, Tyres.
A. Engine of a Formula 1 car
Underneath the body of the car and sitting behind the driver is the heart of a Formula 1 car, the engine. With about 1000 moving parts the Formula 1 engine is the most complex part of the whole car. One of the interesting aspect about engine is that it weighs less than 100 kg, and it can generate over 900 horsepower and revs exceeding 19,000rpm, which is half the weight of the engine of a standard family car, eight times the power output and 3 times the maximum revs. With so much of horse power, revs and extreme high temperatures make it very hard to make these engines reliable. The engine in a Formula 1 car is part of the chassis structure and therefore must absorb some of the forces produced by the rear suspension. Formula 1 engines makes the greatest cost on a Formula 1 car. It is also considered to be one of the most fuel efficient ones available in terms of the output it produces. The engine of a Formula One car is considered to be the most advanced engine in the world. To fans who enjoy the distinctive sound, smell, vibration and sheer speed produced by a Formula 1 engine is at once addictive and powerful feeling.
There are many regulations/limitations imposed by FIA concerning an engine, which are as follows,
1. Engine capacity must not exceed 3000 cc.
2. An engine must consist of 10 cylinders and the normal section of each cylinder must be circular.
3. Engines may have no more than 5 valves per cylinder.
4. Supercharging is forbidden.
5. The use of any device, other than the 3 litre, four stroke engine to power the car, is not permitted
6. Variable geometric length exhaust systems are forbidden.
7. The basic structure of the crankshaft and camshafts must be made from steel or cast iron.
8. Pistons, cylinder heads and cylinder blocks may not be composite structures which use carbon or aramid fibre reinforcing materials.
9. Engines cannot be made using non-ferro materials (this is to limit costs).
10. Each driver would use one engine for the entire race weekend (i.e. fitted fresh for Friday) and that use of a further engine would result in losing ten places on the grid.
Formula 1 engines are mainly made from forged aluminium alloy, because of the weight advantages it gives in comparison to steel. Formula 1 teams do a lot of research and development to reduce the weight of the engine as much as possible. One of the interesting outcome of their quest to reduce engine weight was to shift some weight in the car. That could be placed more on the front wheels or on the rear wheels which could help the steering or the acceleration of the car. It is not exactly known how much oil Formula 1 engine contains, but this oil is for 70% in the engine, while the other 30% is in a dry-sump lubrication system that changes oil within the engine three to four times a minute.
Formula 1 engine manufacturers have a very big team dedicated for research, design and development of engines. Each engine are hand made and takes up over 80 hours. On a typical race weekend in Europe , every team brings 28 people which include race engineers who fine-tune the engine for every part of the track and software specialists to look after the hundreds of sensors associated with the complex engine management system.
Currently all the Formula 1 cars use V-type engines. In this type of engines the cylinder rows are located both above the crank shaft. These engines became popular in F1 because of the low point of gravity, and the average production costs and it is sufficiently stiff enough to withstand the car's G-forces in cornering conditions.
The solution to produce the best engine is a top guarded secret but the basic design parameters for a modern Formula 1 engine are well understood. The engine's centre of weight should be as low as possible. This is one of the key reasons engine manufacturers are investigating greater than 90 degree cylinder angles in the V configuration, but vibration is a major problem that has to be overcome in this design. The design of the engine ultimately impacts the chassis especially aerodynamic characteristics of the rear of the chassis, but to a large extent, will dictate the aerodynamic requirements of the front. Providing clean air flow to the radiator intakes and air box is the key to getting the best performance out of the engine. Just above the driver's head there is a large opening that supplies the engine with air. It is commonly thought that the purpose of this is to 'ram' air into the engine like a supercharger, but the airbox does the opposite. Between the airbox and the engine there is a carbon-fibre duct that gradually widens out as it approaches the engine. As the volume increases, it makes the air flow slow down. The shape of this must be carefully designed to both fill all cylinders equally and not harm the exterior aerodynaimcs of the engine cover, this all to optimize the volumetric efficiency.
The production of torque/power needs to be smooth and responsive across the largest possible rev range, the dimensions of the engine should be as compact as possible, and it needs to be reliable in the harsh racing environment.
A smooth or consistent delivery of power is crucial for enabling the driver to place the car continually on the edge of traction and avoid sliding or spinning out. This translates to a flat torque curve, i.e. a constant production of torque across the useful rev range, and therefore a linear power curve (power being equal to torque multiplied by rpm). To ensure the responsiveness of the engine (easy to accelerate/decelerate), the inertia of the rotational components such as the pistons and crankshaft should be minimised. Utilizing light weight materials are essential, but can have detrimental affects on low-end torque, combined with increased frictional losses, the limit on high rpm rev due to the inability to handle the increasing forces and stresses. Engineers stress many factors to manage efficient engine torque/power which includes the pipes of the exhaust system (individually tuned in length), diameter and curvature (minimise blockage and ensure that the gases to/from the cylinders do not interfere with each other).
The air box above the driver's helmet must provide a constant pressure and speed of air intake regardless of outside weather conditions, at all parts of the track including tight corners. Losses of energy due to vibrations, heat loss and friction must be minimised. Complex computer modelling and simulation is carried out to constantly improve every aspect of performance. In this case, computer-intensive CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is use to develop the aerodynamics of the car to simulate the ignition, flame propagation and gas flow inside the cylinders.
These days Formula 1 engine are designed to run for the entire race weekend before being overhauled. Thus, the stress it goes through is by no means easy, it has to withstand heat, g-forces and maximum rpm (far exceed that experienced by a commercial engine during its lifetime). Periodic factory tests are unable to fully simulate the g-forces, airflow/cooling characteristics, and track surface vibrations encountered in racing, track testing is still invaluable as a source of information when looking at reliability. Engineers use telemetry data to gather test results that retrieves important information in conjunction with engine components. Every component of the engine and factors are studied. In addition, the two-way telemetry or Bi-Telemetry technology (pit-to-car telemetry is banned from 2004) is also used to maximise reliability by allowing the team to limit the engine's rev range (switch in the spare oil reservoir if needed).
Mapping, where the engine's performance requirements for every metre of track are input to the engine management system, helps increase reliability. This procedure ensures that all engine set-up parameters are optimised, thus minimising unnecessary stresses on the engine components. Life expectancy of engine components like cylinder heads lasts longer than others and is recycled for engines to be used in testing, practice and qualifying sessions. In other words, recycled engines, but for Grand Prix races, each engine is brand new.
The engine runs on fuel based on an EU standard unleaded that will be used by road car in 2005.The fuel burns at a very high temperature and has a fuel consumption of approximately 5 miles to the gallon. In addition, the engine uses specially formulated oil that is almost as thin as water to help reduce resistance. The efficiency of the oil allows the engine to run at a cooler temperature, which increases the aerodynamic efficiency of the whole car.
Few facts about Formula 1 engines
- Number of combustions in a Grand Prix: 8 million
- Number of engine & vehicle measurements/second at top speed: 150,000
- Maximum rpm: 19,000+
- Number of individual parts: 5,000 approx
- Number of different parts: 1,000 approx
- Maximum exhaust temperature(in a race): 800 Celsius
- Number of litres of air aspirated in 1 second at top speed: 450
- F1 engines built in a year: 200
- Weight in kg: <100
- Engine assembly hours: 80
- Hours checking a new cylinder head with computer tomography: 20
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B. Tyres of a Formula 1 Car
Tyres are one of the most important performance variables of a Formula 1 car. The tyres are the only elements of the car that actually touch the track, converting the power generated by the engine and transmission into forward motion. In order to limit cornering and acceleration speeds of the car, tyre regulations have changed a lot in Formula 1 history. Any change in tyre regulation can greatly influence the performance of a racecar so it is very important for the FIA to study all possibilities if they decide to change any of these regulations. The performance of tyres is so important for the Formula 1 cars that an average car with good tyres can do well, but with bad tyres even the very best car does not stand a chance.
Formula One circuits play host to the harshest test of car tyres anywhere in the world. In a typical grand prix, sets of tyres are scrubbed and scuffed, superheated to more than 100C and completely worn out up to three times over the course of a typical 200km race. Rubber has never been so abused. Except, of course, that it's not rubber: Formula One tyres are a mixture of rubber, carbon, oil and sulphur in an infinite number of ratios, each calculated to produce different results.
Some tyres are very soft and grippy, others are tougher and designed to last longer. Apart from their constituent ingredients, they have little in common with roadcar tyres. Formula 1 tyre is designed to last for, at most, 200 kilometres and support a vehicle weighing only 600kg ,where as an ordinary car tyre is made with heavy steel-belted radial plies and designed for durability - typically a life of 16,000 kilometres or more (10,000 miles) and support more than double the weight of a Formula 1 car.
The Formula 1 tyre is constructed from very soft rubber compounds which offer the best possible grip against the texture of the racetrack, but wear very quickly in the process. Comprising more than one hundred ingredients, the compound is based on three main elements: carbon, oil and sulphur. A Formula 1 tyre is designed and constructed to be as light and strong as possible. The structure is composed of a Nylon and polyester framework, in a complex weave to provide rigidity against high aerodynamic load (more than one tonne of force at 250 km/h), strong longitudinal forces (4 G), lateral forces (5 G) and violent crossing of the vibrating strips. All racing tyres work best at relatively high temperatures, Formula One dry 'grooved' tyres are typically designed to function at between 90 degrees Celsius and 110 degrees Celsius. Although low pressure of about 1.1 kg/cm2 allows better grip and greater contact area on the track better, a variation of just 0.2 kg/cm² can spoil the performance of the car. In order to ensure the lowest possible variations in tyre pressure (heat increases the pressure), Formula 1 tyres instead of normal air, are filled with a special mixture of low density gases (nitrogen-rich air mixture).The mixture also retains the pressure longer than normal air would.
Before 1998 Formula 1 teams used slick tyres, which had maximum rubber in contact with the road. In order to reduce cornering speed and to make races more competitive slick tyres were banned and grooved tyres were introduced. According to the regulations all tyres must have four continuous longitudinal grooves at least 2.5 mm deep and spaced 50mm apart.
At the start of the race weekend each team is offered with two different rubber compounds (soft and hard) and once the team has chosen either 'soft' or 'hard' it is required to run those tyres throughout the race. Choice of soft or hard rubber compound depends on the characteristics of the track. The softness of the tyre rubber is varied by changes in the proportions of ingredients added to the rubber, of which the three main ones are carbon, sulphur and oil, the more oil in a tyre, the softer it will be.
Intermediate and wet tyres have full tread patterns, necessary to expel standing water when racing in the wet. One of the worst possible situations for a race driver remains 'aquaplaning' – when there is more water between the tyres and the road than can be displaced by the tyre tread and a film of water builds up between the tyre and the road, meaning that the car is effectively floating. This leads to vastly reduced levels of grip. The tread patterns of modern racing tyres are mathematically designed to scrub the maximum amount of water possible from the track surface to ensure the best possible contact between the rubber and the track.
Tyre condition is an important clue for engineers seeking optimum set-up in Formula 1. If you have more grip from the back wheels than the front, the car tends to understeer - and oversteer when front grip is better. The relative wear of the tyres on a car can tell engineers if a particular set-up is working or not. Likewise, pressure changes and 'hot spots' on tyre surfaces tell race mechanics much about suspension parameters.
FIA Regulations concerning Tyres
1. There are currently two tyre suppliers (more are permitted) in Formula One racing, Bridgestone and Michelin, and both companies must be willing to supply at least 60 per cent of the field if required.
2. During a race weekend a driver is allowed to use up to 40 dry-weather tyres (only two different specifications or compounds are permitted) and 28 wet-weather tyres (only one specification permitted). However, how and when these tyres are used is strictly controlled.
3. For Friday each driver is allocated three sets of dry-weather tyres. No more than two of those sets may be of the same specification. Before Saturday's first practice session each driver must nominate which specification he will use for the rest of the weekend (unless both of Friday's sessions were wet, in which case he can delay his choice until after Saturday practice).
4. The dry-weather tyres have four grooves and the spacing and depth of these grooves must conform to strict specifications. Although there are currently no regulations on tyre wear during a race, the FIA reserve the right to introduce appropriate procedures if they feel teams are obtaining a performance gain from using very worn tyres.
5. Up until the start of qualifying, wet-weather tyres may only be used if the track has been declared wet by the race director. Suppliers may bring different types of wet-weather tyre to cope with various conditions, but all must be pre-approved by the FIA.
6. All tyres are given a bar code at the start of the weekend so that the FIA can closely monitor their use and ensure that no teams are breaking regulations.
Tyre Change in Formula 1 race
The Formula 1 teams' mechanics are able to change the tyres during a pit stop (without refuelling) in some six seconds; this lightning-speed service, which often has consequences for the outcome of the race, requires a lot of preparations. During a race weekend a driver is allowed to use up to 40 dry-weather tyres (only two different specifications or compounds are permitted) and 28 wet-weather tyres (only one specification permitted) , no mistakes must be made in tyre allocation as otherwise the driver concerned could be disqualified.
The tyres are wrapped in heating blankets at least two hours before they are needed to ensure that they have the optimum pressure and right temperature from the word go. These blankets are capable of heating the tyres to temperatures between 50 and 100 degrees centigrade. The temperature setting depends on the surface of a particular racetrack and on ambient temperatures. About one lap before a driver comes into the pits for a tyre change and refuelling, the tyres, still wrapped in their blankets, are positioned in the pits. The heating blankets are removed as late as possible, in most cases when the driver is already approaching in the pit lane.
After a pit stop, the tyres removed are immediately checked and pressure in the tyres is measured while they are still hot. The measured data are transmitted to the teams' engineers at the pit wall, arriving at the control centre together with other measured data from the car by means of telemetry. The engineers are thus able to draw conclusions about any adjustments in tyre pressure that may be required for the next set of tyres.
Few facts and figures related to Formula 1 tyres
1. The front tyre weighs 10kg were as a rear weighs about 12kg
2. Formula 1tyres are inflated to relatively low pressures (1.2-1.3 bar) in order to produce the broadest possible contact patch and, therefore, a higher level of grip.
3. The number of different materials that go into the creation of an F1 tyre is 150. They include rubber (natural and synthetic), styrene butadiene (for grip) and polybutadiene (for durability). A tyre also incorporates textile fibres such as nylon or polyester, resins, sulphur, wax, oils and so on.
4. A dry-weather tyre reaches peak operating performance when tread temperature is between 90°C and 110°C.
5. Around 50,000 Formula 1 tyres are made every year for the 10 teams.
6. The number of times a tyre rotates during the course of a grand prix- 150,000
7. At top speed a wheel turns 50 times per second.
8. Around 50 tonnes of weight of tyres and related equipment are packed in containers for transport to Formula 1 events.
Formula 1 tyres and road car tyres
The huge research effort in Formula 1 does help a lot in roadcar tyre technology. One example is the use of silica in the tread compounds of tyres. Grip is affected by the degree to which a tyre is distorted at high frequency as it turns, so ideally you want tyre structures that absorb the shocks from uneven road surfaces and stone chips etc. Traditionally, however, this kind of tyre structure has tended to offer poor rolling resistance characteristics. Experimentation with a range of substances revealed that silica-based tyres offer low rolling resistance whilst maintaining good wet weather grip-the ideal combination. Another benefit for road car tyres drawn from Formula 1 is the use of computer simulation in tread pattern design to evaluate the efficiency of any tread pattern and maximise tyre grip in corners. Also computerised tyre modelling allows designers to predict the pitch sequence of tread patterns to help reduce noise.
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C. Brakes of a Formula 1 car
Formula 1 cars are famous for its high speeds and superfast cornering, but more than engines, tyres or aerodynamics the real secret of success in Formula 1 is the astounding braking power allied to the secret technology that keeps the wheels glued to the tarmac.
Formula 1 car has incredibly powerful brakes and can slow down from 125mph to a standstill in just 55 meters. This process takes 1.9 seconds and generates deceleration forces of up to 5g, making the driver feel five times his normal weight which is enough to force teardrops from driver's eyes. During normal street driving, cars tend to brake early to be safe but this is exactly opposite of what is followed in racing. Braking is very late so as to gain maximum advantage in terms of time. Hence the braking system needs to be very effective and precise.
In physical terms we can state that energy is the power to do work. When a Formula 1 car comes down a straight line at 300 km/h or more, that car has lots of kinetic (movement) energy. Due to the fact that energy does not get lost, but can only be transformed one kind into another, at braking most of the kinetic energy is transformed into potential energy, more specifically warmth. During braking, the carbon brake disks, which are used in Formula 1, heats up to 1000 degrees centigrade in one second and glow red hot. Formula 1 cars have carbon disc brakes with rotating discs (attached to the wheels) being squeezed between two brake pads by the action of a hydraulic calliper.
Too much braking through a wheel will cause it to lock as the brakes overpower the available levels of grip from the tyre. Formula 1 previously allowed anti-skid braking systems, which works by applying and releasing pressure on brake discs very rapidly to stop wheels locking up and to allow the driver to maintain steering control, but these were banned in the 1990s. Braking therefore remains one of the sternest tests of a Formula 1 driver's skill.
Formula 1 brakes require air at the cost of upsetting the airflow around the car and creating drag. Inside and slightly ahead of each hub/wheel assembly, are the brakes cooling ducts. These ducts are necessary to force cool air over the brake discs. The brake duct actually contains a large fan, that rotates around the wheel's axis (upright) and at its same speed. This causes the fan to rotate very quickly at high speeds, and thus sucking air onto the brakes, where without a brake duct, the air is pushed onto it, just guiding the air to the brake. This brake duct allows the air inlet to be way smaller than it used to be, which generated a considerable aerodynamic advantage.
The most important elements of a brake system are the brake pads and disc, rotating at the same speed of the wheel. Today, these are made from carbon but this is not the same carbon used in the chassis, but a pure carbon that's very expensive to produce. It's done by a process called chemical vapour deposition. A matrix is made and put it into an oven rich in a hydrocarbon gas. Gradually pure carbon is deposited onto the matrix to make brake discs and pads - but the process takes 150 days. The resulting components weigh very little and can withstand very high temperatures. Indeed, they only work above 200-300C, which is why they'll never replace steel brake discs in roadcars.
Despite these problems, Formula 1 brake technology is coming to the street. Certain cars have ceramic brakes based on a carbon fibre matrix impregnated with resin. They're 10 times more expensive than steel but the ceramic brakes last three times as long as steel. The material is already used in braking systems on high-speed trains.
However powerful the electronics, safety ultimately depends upon friction – and in braking power, as in so many other ways, Formula 1 technology is bringing added safety to our roads.
FIA Rules & Regulations for Brake system
Formula One cars must have one brake system operated through a single brake pedal. However, the system must comprise two hydraulic circuits – one for the front wheels and one for the rear. Should one circuit fail the other must remain operational. Power brakes and anti-lock braking systems (ABS) are not allowed.
Each wheel must have no more than one brake disc of 278mm maximum diameter and 28mm maximum thickness. Each disc must have only one aluminium caliper, with a maximum of six circular pistons, and no more than two brake pads.
The size of the air ducts used to cool the brakes is strictly controlled and they must not protrude beyond the wheels. The use of liquid to cool the brakes is forbidden.
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Section 3: Communication, Electronics and Software Systems
State of the art Communication, Electronic and Software Systems have propelled Formula 1 into a new age of machine technology. In the world's most technologically advanced sport having the best computing systems and solutions can realistically give the winning edge. Every Formula 1 cars on the grid is dependent upon sophisticated electronics to govern its many complex operational systems. Each Formula 1 car has over a kilometer of cable, linked to about 100 sensors and actuators which monitor and control many parts of the car. Rarely a race goes by without a car retiring with electrical problems, indicating the important role that this technology has in modern Formula 1 cars. Almost every Formula 1 teams are associated with a Communication and Software partners. These partners supports the team with a system that relates the complete data during tests and races instantaneously per satellite to the workshop, where they can be analysed.
The Communication and Electronics Systems of a Formula 1 car can be divided into Steering Wheel , Traction Control , Electronic Control Unit and Launch Control
A. Steering Wheel of a Formula 1 Car
Steering wheel is one of the most complex elements of a Formula 1 car, it is the critical interface between the driver and the car. Among other things, the driver can use the buttons on the wheel to alter the brake balance, adjust the fuel mixture and stay in contact with the team in the garage.
In the past the steering wheel on a Formula 1 car was a relatively plain, straightforward piece of equipment, round in shape, with a metal plate at the centre to attach it to the steering column, and generally no more than three buttons – one for selecting neutral, one for releasing liquid through a tube in the helmet for the driver to replenish his fluid levels and one for the radio.
The advent of complex electronic systems in Formula 1 throughout the 1990s changed all that. These days the steering wheel is one of the most complex and high-tech parts of a Formula 1 car, with a typical wheel controlling at least 12 further functions in addition to actually steering the wheels and such a high tech steering wheel can reputedly costs in excess of $250,000, and it is often said that a Formula1 steering wheel has more technology in it, than in the whole of a Winston Cup car.
These steering wheels can be removed, because of official FIA regulations, and always have to be removed if the driver wants to leave his car. All imaginable information is readable on it. Besides the usual indicators like rpm, gear and speed, a lot of adjustments can be made to change the performance of the car.
All steering wheels are fitted with a sprung-to-centre, double-acting rocker switch to command gear changes. The system is mounted behind the rim of the wheel and is operated by the driver's fingertips, pulling on paddles shaped to the driver's individual requirement. A single pull on the right hand paddle commands a single up shift, and a single pull on the left hand one commands a single down shift. This eliminates the possibility of a driver missing a gear, therefore increasing the smoothness and improving the timing of gearshifts. The gearbox computer (or the software section controlling the gearbox, in the car's central computer) will check that a down change will not over-rev the engine, and it will then operate throttles, clutch and the gearbox selector mechanism to give the driver the gear he has asked for. If the over-rev. protection software predicts an over-rev., it must, according to the regulations, only prevent engagement - not delay it - and the driver must re-select the gear.
Most cars now have hand operated clutches. One or two paddles mounted behind the wheel rim, are operated with the fingertips in a similar manner to the gear-change paddles. However, while the gear-change paddles operate switches, the clutch paddles operate a position sensor against spring pressure. The position of the paddle determines the position of the clutch slave cylinder, via the computer and hydraulic system. The driver will only operate the clutch during starts, pit stops and if he spins - gear change operation is automatic - and he must learn to control the clutch take-up precisely, even though he is denied the force feedback he would be used to with a foot-operated clutch. Wear of the clutch, which affects the take-up point during engagement, is compensated for automatically.
In sequential change gearboxes, whether operated by a lever or steering wheel paddles, it is notoriously difficult to select neutral. The position of the selection mechanism does not indicate the gear selected, as an H-pattern shift does. Motorbikes, which also have sequential gearboxes, have this problem. In order to try and avoid stalling while groping for neutral after a spin or during a pit stop, a button is mounted on the steering wheel which, when pressed, automatically sequences the gearbox into neutral.
The regulations permit multiple gear-changes as a result of a single command by the driver. These will always be downshifts (the equivalent of skip-shifting a manual gearbox), and must only be commanded under conditions that would engage the lower gear without over-revving the engine. Commanding it too early must result in either the box being left in the original gear or neutral - very unsettling for the driver. Some drivers however, like to have a button on the wheel to skip-shift down several gears e.g. 7th to 2nd for a slow corner at somewhere like Monaco, where gear changing can get very busy.
The Press to Transmit (PTT) button for the car-to-pits radio is usually fitted to the steering wheel. The driver must operate this switch in order to be able to talk to the team, while in the car.
Pit Lane Speed Limiter
Exceeding the Pit Lane Speed Limit results in a hefty fine during practice and qualifying, and a Stop-Go penalty during the race. It did not take long for the drivers to demand a technical solution to speeding in the Pit Lane. All cars are fitted with a button on the wheel that imposes a speed limit to the car. It can only operate in 1st, 2nd and 3rd gears, must be selected and de-selected by the driver, and only used in the Pit Lane - these regulations are to ensure that it is not used on the track as a crude traction control system.
Pressing the button changes the engine rev-limit, according to the gear selected and the limit in force at the time. Drivers must remember to press it before crossing the pit entry line, as it does not instantly slow the car to the correct speed, as some drivers once thought.
In the race, this button may also operate the latch on the refueling flap. When it is pressed, the flap pops open ready for refuelling, and it closes again when the speed limiter is de-selected by the driver as the car rejoins the circuit. Some cars have a separate button for the flap.
One of the most important adjustments that a driver has to make to a car while running, is brake balance. Brake balance, front to rear, is critical to the stability of a racing car during the braking and turn-in phase; too much rear brakes will tend to cause the car to spin; too much front and it will not turn in. Settings will change as the fuel load lightens, the track grip changes, and particularly if it rains. So critical is it that it is not feasible for the race engineer to determine the correct setting; the driver must set it up by feel.
Brake balance is adjusted by altering the leverage ratio between the pedal and each master cylinder. For years the driver has been able to adjust the balance by rotating a knob in the cockpit, driving a flexible cable that moves the pedal pivot to a new position on the balance bar. Such a system requires the driver to reach down into the cockpit, usually with his left hand, and turn the knob. Turning the knob the wrong way because the sign was invisible down in the cockpit, has caused more than one accident. To adjust brake balance from the steering wheel requires an electronically signalled servo-system. Not all teams have gone down this route, but some have. One regulation that must be adhered to is that it must not be possible to make adjustments while the brakes are applied - that would be a sort of active brake balance. It is virtually physically impossible for the driver to adjust the balance, with a mechanical system, while the brake pedal is loaded, but with a servo system it would undoubtedly be possible. A knob, with several numbered switch positions, would be used for brake balance adjustment.
Engine air-fuel ratio (Mixture)
It is permissible to adjust the air-fuel ratio of the engine, with a maximum of three settings. Steering wheels are fitted with a three-position knob for this purpose. The mid-position is likely to be the best compromise between power and economy, with a richer setting for maximum power for overtaking and a leaner setting for stretching out the fuel load if necessary.
It is permissible to change the rev-limiter setting, provided all the settings are above the RPM for peak power. It is unlikely that many drivers would be provided with a knob for this purpose, but a button to occasionally raise the rev-limit for overtaking might be an option.
Electronically controlled systems
All Formula1 cars are fitted with electronically controlled engine fuelling and ignition, differential, clutch, drive-by-wire throttles, and power steering. In 1998, the Ferrari steering wheel was a mass of multi-position knobs for adjusting settings, maps and even algorithms for these systems. From 1999, the regulations ban the driver from making adjustments to any of these systems while the car is in motion (in the case of the clutch, while the engine is running). As the engineers can change the settings once the car is stationary in the pits, most of the knobs disappeared. However, when it rains, the ideal settings for the differential and engine response (engine fuel and ignition map and throttle progression) are very different from those best suited to dry conditions. Rain is usually accompanied by a pit stop for wet tyres and so while the car is stationary in the Pits, the driver may legally change settings, changing them back when he next stops for dry tyres.
Under wet conditions, the last thing a driver wants is a sudden increase in torque just as he is feeding in the throttle coming out of a corner. In the dry the same is true, but the throttle openings and speeds (and therefore probably engine RPM) are both greater. Drive-by-wire characteristics and the engine map can both be tuned to make the driving task easier in slippery conditions. The schedule of differential locking under the three critical phases - braking, turn-in and power-out of the corner - is set up in software. Wet conditions will probably need greater lock-up under braking to give stability, and under power-out to avoid the inside wheel spinning, while less lock-up during the turn-in phase, to minimise understeer, may be desirable. If the driver can swap between settings, depending on whether dry or wet tyres are fitted, he will have an advantage. Not all teams offer this facility to their drivers, only those that have the resources to develop alternative settings and intelligent drivers. It is noticeable that Ferrari spend a considerable time testing in the wet at Fiorano, where they have the facility to spray water on the circuit, and that Schumacher has more knobs on his steering wheel than drivers in other teams, and that he is very quick in the wet.
Gone are the days when drivers were presented with a rev-counter and a variety or other gauges telling him oil and water temperatures and maybe pressures. The RPM of today's 18,000rpm engines changes too fast to be of any use to the driver as an aid to changing gear. Instead, a series of LED's flash on in sequence to tell him when to change up a gear, automatically adjusting to different rev-limits. Intelligent software monitors all the significant parameters of the engine, gearbox and hydraulic systems, and any deviation from normality is warned to the driver by a message on an LCD display or by illuminating a light (the engineers in the pit garage receive all the data by telemetry, and will be aware of the situation simultaneously). The driver can then select, via yet another button, a display that gives him more information about the problem, and he will be able to monitor the important parameters, relevant to the ailing system. The driver will be alerted to a potentially catastrophic situation, with a more urgent display (red, flashing light or flashing LCD) e.g. the engine being about to blow-up, and no doubt an urgent message from the pits will be received over his radio.
The LCD displays can also be configured in a wide variety of ways, according to the requirements of the driver, and indexed through the modes by pressing the display-mode button. This operates in much the same way as mobile phones can be indexed through displays of information about callers, messages, phone book etc. The driver normally has it set up to display the lap time for the last lap, triggered automatically by his trackside beacon.
All these switches, buttons, knobs, lights and displays, packed into a hollow, CFRP steering wheel, results in dense wiring inside the wheel. It would be virtually impossible for all these wires to connect individually to the computer(s), via a wiring loom inside the steering column and a multi-way disconnect plug to allow the wheel to be removed. Formula1 cars use networked electrical systems, with each module - engine, gearbox, differential, power-steering, hydraulics, steering wheel, on-board computers, race engineer's notebook computer etc - being a node on the CAN network. Thus the steering wheel only needs electrical power and the CAN data bus to connect it to the car. Inside the steering wheel is a microprocessor, which communicates with the network and controls all the switches, lights and displays on the wheel.
The manufacture of any part on a Formula 1 car is a complex process, and the steering wheel is no exception. Many different lightweight materials are used in its manufacture, including carbon fibre, aluminum, titanium, steel, rubber and plastic, and a complete steering wheel can take approximately 100 hours to produce from start to finish.
With the average steering wheel controlling as many as 12 separate parameters on the car, there is a large number of components, buttons and switches that have to be fitted during the manufacturing process – some 120 separate items in all. Yet, despite the myriad of materials and parts that make up each completed wheel, the weight of the finished unit, as fitted to the car, is just 1.3 kilograms.
During the season, a minimum of five steering wheels is constructed for each of the team's two race drivers. Of these, three remain with the race team while two are held with the test team.
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B. Electronic Control Unit of a Formula 1 Car
The electronic control unit (ECU) is the brain of a modern Formula 1 car. It is of size of a book and sits inside the sidepod and manages the flow of information generated by telemetry sensors, traction control and other devices on the car.
On the car there are a lot of sensors and processors producing data during tests, practices and races. The electronic system has to take all this information in and then process it in order to control different parts of the car. It controls the engine, the gearbox, the throttle-by-wire, the clutch and the differential.
The 900 horse power of a modern Formula 1 engine is largely a result of electronic control unit (ECU) that controls the many systems inside an engine so that they work to their maximum at every point around the lap. As far as the engine is concerned it drives the primary actuators, i.e. the ignition coils which make the sparks, the injectors which supply the fuel and the pneumatic valve actuation. On the chassis it controls the actuators for the throttle, gearbox and clutch.
Depending upon the nature of the circuit the Engine mappings can change completely. Slower and twister tracks such as Monaco for instance, the engine control system will help the driver have more control on the throttle input by making the first half of the pedal movement very sensitive, and the latter half less sensitive. This means that the driver can have great control on the throttle for the twisty corners, so that it is easier to limit the acceleration out of corners so not to spin the wheels.
At high speed circuits such as Monza, the driver has to jump on the throttle more out of the chicanes, rather than gradually applying full throttle. The accelerator will be set so that only a small movement will result in full engine acceleration. It is also possible to iron out any unplanned movements of the throttle such as when a driver travels over a bump and his foot may move slightly.
The engine control system can cut out the jumps of the throttle and keep full throttle down the straight, even on bumpy tracks. This is all possible because there is no direct link between the engine and the accelerator. The accelerator position is sensed using an actuator, and this signal is then sent to the engine control system, from where it is passed onto the engine. An engine ECU is much more than a device for making the throttle more or less sensitive. The ECU controls the inlet trumpet height, fuel injection among other things to try to get the maximum torque out of the engine. In the modern world of electronics, the ECU monitors many of the engine parameters including RPM, to control the torque output from the engine. This means that the modern day Formula 1 accelerator acts more like a torque switch than a simple fuel input controller. Formula 1 engines are so complex that they are designed to run in a small power band between 15000 - 18000 rpm, and the electronic monitoring and controlling of the engine parameters are crucial in keeping the engine in this working region. This working region is where torque is virtually constant, and letting the engine get below the lower limit would see a sudden drop off of torque, until the engine began to rev in the working region, where the torque would come in suddenly again, probably promoting wheelspin.
The ECU also controls the clutch, electronic differential and the gearbox. The clutch is controlled by the driver to start the car from rest, but not during gear changes. Although the driver modulates the throttle like on a road car (although with his hand) there is no direct link to the clutch - it is all electronic. The ECU engages and disengages the clutch as the driver moves the paddle behind the steering wheel. The ECU will also depress the clutch if the car spins to stop it stalling. The FIA introduced the anti-stall device in 2000 to prevent cars stalling after a spin and being left dangerously in the middle of the track. The ECU is also responsible for changing gears in under 100 milliseconds. The electronics allow the driver to keep his foot flat on the throttle during up-shifts, and blip the throttle on down-shifts to match engine speed with transmission speed to prevent driveline snatch. The final area controlled by the ECU is the differential. Modern F1 cars have electronic differentials which monitor and control the amount of slip between the rear wheels on entry and exit of corners. This is often adjusted for different driving styles to try to keep the rear end of the car in control during all phases of a corner.
The ECU logs information and sends it to the garage over the high-speed telemetry link or when the car returns to the garage, the team connect this on-board via wirelink to the rack of servers for high bandwidth data download. The system has to cope with two million words of data every second - then process and display it in a form that enables the race engineers to analyze the information.
This process must be quick enough to provide the quality of information that allows proper decisions to be made. On a high revving Formula One engine, the process of calculating how much fuel to put in and when to ignite the spark is performed 1500 times per second.
Making an electronics unit that can deal with all this is not a simple task. If you take an ECU, there are roughly 3000 components including several extremely powerful microprocessors and logging memory which can store over 30 million values that come from 50 sensors all over the car. The black box has to be small, because there is not much spare space in the car's tub. And they have to be 100 percent reliable as well.
The electrical and software systems of all cars are inspected by the FIA at the start of the season and the teams must notify them in advance of any subsequent changes to the systems.
All software must be registered with the FIA, who check all the programmable systems on the cars prior to each event to ensure that the correct software versions are being used.
Electronic systems which can automatically detect the race start signal are forbidden. Launch control systems must include a signal to prove exactly when the system was activated.
All cars must have an accident data recorder. They must also be fitted with red, yellow and blue cockpit lights which are used to provide drivers with information on track conditions.
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C. Traction Control of a Formula 1 Car
When a Formula 1 car accelerates out of a corner it makes a strange stuttering noise. Initially this noise might suggest an engine failure or misfire but it is actually an advanced engine management system called traction control working to stop the car spinning off the track. Traction control is an electronic aid that assists the driver during the various corners on a racing track. Traction control actually eliminates as much as possible wheel spin. Therefore, it provides much more rear wheel grip in and coming out of the corners. It makes driving a lot easier and safer.
Formula One cars are massively powerful. Even with the grip of modern racing tyres and the assistance of aerodynamic downforce, they are still capable of developing wheelspin up to very high speeds, especially under the loads imposed by cornering. This is inefficient, slows the car down and can damage tyres. Traction control therefore gives drivers a competitive advantage.
To understand traction control it is best to consider the 'traction circle'. The tyres of a Formula One car, like any car, can only offer a certain amount of grip. This can be the longitudinal grip used for braking and accelerating in a straight line, or the lateral grip required for cornering - or a combination of the two. Judging the exact 'mixture' of acceleration and cornering grip that can be extracted from the tyre is one of the hardest tasks faced by a racing driver - too much will result in a 'power slide', too little will see the car putting in a slow time. And it is in this that traction control is of the greatest assistance to drivers.
Traction control does not gets rid of the need for driver skill. The highly 'aggressive' systems on a Formula One car will allow a car to operate very close to the edges of the tyre's capability. But simply travelling around every corner on full throttle would have a very serious impact on the tyres' life and require more frequent pit stops.
As the driver exits a corner and puts his foot on the accelerator the power increase is transmitted to the rear wheels, which makes them rotate faster. At this point the on-board computer measures the rotation of the rear wheels in relation to that of the front wheels. If it registers that the rear wheels are spinning faster than the fronts it cuts the flow of the fuel to the engine until such time that the rotation is matched both front and rear. The traction control system makes hundreds of these measurements every second to help give the driver the best possible traction as he travels past the apex and pulls away from a corner. It is these rapid assessments and reassessments of the power handling that cause the familiar stuttering sounds.
This is system provides better handling of the car and is sometimes essential when the weather is wet. It prevents the cars from sliding around and reduces unwanted wheel-spin which can lead the car to get out of control. Until recently the system was also vital to the 'launch control' mechanism which allowed drivers to make optimum starts. But this has been banned for the 2004 season.
Basically the traction control systems in a Formula 1 car and that found in ordinary passengers car work the same way, but the response of the two systems are very different. A typical passenger car weighs between 1200 and 1500 kg and is powered by an engine that can generate between 100 to 250 horsepower but in case of a Formula 1 car it just weighs 600 kg and is powered by a 900 horsepower engine so the traction control systems of the Formula 1 has to be much quicker. In ordinary passenger car traction control ensures stability under everyday use and in case of Formula 1 cars it is for delivering the maximum amount of power to the road all times.
Facing huge difficulties in controlling and detecting any kind of software that produces some kind of traction control and also as it was becoming increasingly difficult to prove that ECUs (Engine Control Units) were not being used to replicate traction control functions, the FIA finally authorised the electronic systems again, after they had forbidden it in 1993. The GP of Spain 2001 was the first race that introduced the second era with traction control in formula one.
The role of traction control in Formula One racing is an ongoing source of debate, with critics arguing that driver skill alone should regulate the amount of power transferred to a car's rear wheels. However, others have argued that any ban on such systems would be difficult or impossible to police and traction control remains legal for 2004.
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D. Launch Control of a Formula 1 Car
This is an electronic program that performs a fully automated start for a Formula One car. This system is used to help the best possible pickup and acceleration. This system is completely computer aided and the driver just has to press the accelerator. One of the problems with this system is that if the car stalls then it is very difficult to revive it. This system works along with the traction control to reduce wheel spin and better starts. Launch Control is banned this year.
In the past there has been cases where some drivers demonstrated a series of sensational starts. Rumors began about those teams car being able to detect the turning off of the jump-start detection system, triggered by the automatic start of the race, and being able to automatically launch the car, avoiding the driver's reaction time to the lights being turned off. This is unlikely to be true as not only is it illegal, but the FIA still carries out software inspections. According to the regulation, any system, the purpose and/or effect of which is to detect when a race signal is given, is not permitted. While the rumored system allegedly detects when the jump-start system disables, it does also detect when the race signal is given, indirectly.
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Business Aspects of Formula 1
Section 1: Formula 1 – a sport and a multi-million dollar business
Formula 1 is all about the world's fastest racing drivers and cars competing for motor sport's ultimate prizes - the World Driver's Championship and the Constructor's Title. But Formula 1 is also where sport meets technology for the business of entertainment.
The sport has changed dramatically during the 1990s due to the power of money. Grand Prix can generate more than US$100 million in direct income, not to mention what the host country gains in terms of tourism revenue and growth in its service industries which can go to around US$1 billion.
The racing itself is driven by a relentless search for fractional improvements in lap times. In order to achieve this, tens of millions of dollars are required for research and development, just to reduce a lap time by a mere 0.1 second. The middle ranking teams need to raise between US$30 million and US$40 million each year in sponsorship to compete, whereas a top team is likely to spend many times that amount. Fiat - Ferrari's parent company - reportedly spends US$450 million a year on its Formula 1 team and Toyota spends around US$600 million a year for its Formula 1 program.
Blue-chip companies seem to be the only ones that can afford to become 'title sponsors' of the sport, and they do so because each race is seen by an average of 400 million potential customers on TV screens around the world.
One significant pointer that shows the development of the sport in recent years is the increasing number of television viewers. Total annual viewer ship has risen from 17.5 billion at the turn of the decade to 57 billion in 1999 - a figure arrived at by counting each time someone tunes in to a Formula 1 broadcast. The popularity of the sport is growing fast, especially in Asian countries. British television audiences have grown by 43 per cent in five years, and the number of women viewers has risen by around 10 per cent since 1994. The FIA estimates that 38 per cent of all Formula 1 viewers today are women. There are many reasons for the popularity of the sport. The main reason people follow racing is because it becomes an addiction, some fans are still attracted to its long and distinguished history; others tune in because it is such a fast and furious, colorful and technology-driven sport. Today, almost anything that happens in Formula 1, whether controversial, political or otherwise, makes world headlines, proving the rule that all news is good news.
Formula 1 is also attracting new and varied sponsors. In addition to the companies that are traditionally associated with the sport, such as tobacco manufacturers, car manufacturers and fuel suppliers, Formula 1 now counts fashion houses, airlines, finance companies, telecommunications corporations and computer manufacturers among its backers.
The growth of Formula 1 must be regarded as one of the most stunning business success stories of recent history. Marketing campaigns associated with Formula 1 have an immediate global impact, transcending geographic, language and social barriers, together with a universally recognized image of excitement, precision, teamwork and competitiveness. Grand Prix racing is the most powerful global weapon that exists in sport. It is watched by hundreds of millions and it can be used to deliver a message.
In the future, India might no longer be remembered for traditions and history. In time it could be remembered as a location for one of the most exciting Grand Prix in the modern era.
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A. Motorsport - What a Business
Motorsport is an artful blend of technology, entertainment and marketing muscle has been sending fans, sponsors and automakers rushing to part with their money in increasingly record numbers. Motorsport has been around almost as long as cars have but the business of motorsport has grown particularly fast in the past 20 years. The motorsport business has finally come of age. Today, motorsport is a worldwide, dynamic automotive entertainment and marketing medium and it also reaches down to the grassroots of consumer spending behavior, creating close relationships between racers, their sponsors and the fans/consumers. The economic impact of today's motorsport business and racing is measured in billions of dollars, and the industry has reached new levels of sophistication in technology and marketing.
Formula 1 is the biggest motorsport show on planet it is also called as the pinnacle of motorsport and its roots are based in Europe . Formula 1 race organizers claim that they generate television audiences for this event numbering in the billions. Sponsors come from all over the world to pay millions of dollars for the privilege of being officially associated with Formula 1. Marketing campaigns associated with Formula One have an immediate global impact, transcending geographic, language and social barriers, together with a universally recognized image of excitement, precision, teamwork and competitiveness. With races held in Europe , North and South America , and Asia , Formula 1 truly is a global phenomenon.
The sport has fueled the development of a growing knowledge-based cluster industry in the UK , where the majority of the Formula 1 teams and suppliers are based. It is estimated that more than 4,000 companies (e.g., car constructors, suppliers, publishers, photography companies, major industrial companies) in Britain alone are involved in the motorsport industry. Although many of these companies are small firms, they often provide specialized services and cutting-edge technologies, which is an outcome of their heavy investment in research and development. Britain leads the world in racing technology. They also derive two-thirds of their revenues from overseas markets. The British motorsport sector is estimated to be worth $2.5 billion-$3 billion, roughly equivalent to the entire U.S. motorsport market.
The United States is Geared Differently. As with many other major league sports popular in the United States , American consumers prefer a more homespun product. In the United States , stock car racing, in particular NASCAR events, has grown from its bootlegging, hotrod origins to become a marketing powerhouse. NASCAR's recent television contract has exposed the sport to an even wider audience by bringing it to network television viewers for an entire season. NASCAR's merchandising division generates millions in revenues for its principal owners.
Fans and sponsors in the United States also enjoy two rival open-wheel racing series: Championship Auto Racing Teams (CART) and the Indy Racing League (IRL). Although many observers believe that the CART/IRL split has diluted their respective markets, CART went public in 1998 and ever since has tried to expand into new overseas markets but recently its having a tough time to survive and on the other hand IRL is getting more popular among the American fans.
The U.S. market also is characterized by its high level of grassroots participation. Leading U.S. trade journal claims there are more than 385,000 race participants in North America . With 1,200 racetracks (of which half are oval tracks) and many low-budget series in the United States , the fantasy of becoming a car driver is within reach for the average person. The infrastructure needed for the existence of a successful racing industry is present as well. More than 2,000 racing products manufacturers sell to 1,700 warehouse distributors, who in turn service more than 10,000 racing retailers.
Despite the strength of grassroots racing in the United States , some motorsport companies have flourished as major league enterprises and have offered their shares to the public. Three of the four major public motorsport companies in the United States are track owners and operators, a side of the business that has experienced significant consolidation in recent years. Track operators' up-front costs are high but operating costs are low, resulting in high operating margins once revenues increase past the break-even point.
Most of the world's major auto manufacturers have always had a hand in racing. But the nature of their involvement is changing. For automakers to capitalize on their motorsport programs, it is not only essential that they win races; they must also create a meaningful link between success on the track and the retail experience. An example shows how car companies can find innovative ways to do this. The Dodge division of DaimlerChrysler entered NASCAR Winston Cup racing by teaming up with 3,000 friendly dealers and the United Auto Workers to field a two-car team. In stock car racing, where the vehicles closely resemble their street-going counterparts, this approach neatly ties in the builders, owners and sellers of the Dodge brand.
On the global stage, however, automakers have taken a different approach. In Formula 1 racing, Ford purchased the Stewart Grand Prix team and renamed it Jaguar Racing to promote its global luxury brand. DaimlerChrysler purchased a 40 percent stake in the TAG McLaren(now just Mclaren) team that uses Mercedes-Benz engines (built by Ilmor in the UK ), and BMW purchased a stake in Williams Grand Prix, which now uses BMW engines. The reason for much of this investment is the image enhancement automakers gain from participating. The diversity of racing series allows automakers to strengthen their images in selected demographics segments. Subaru, for example, has had great success in the World Rally Championship, a grueling form of off-road racing that showcases the all-wheel-drive technology available in Subaru's passenger cars. General Motors has chosen to bring its Cadillac brand to the legendary 24 Hours of LeMans as part of its long-term strategy to position Cadillac as a global luxury brand.
For all its success, the motorsport industry still faces challenges and must find new ways to grow. Some of the most critical areas include the following:
Sponsorship: Reduced tobacco sponsorship will need replacement. Will the dot.coms come to the rescue? The industry must continue to obtain lucrative TV contracts and use new broadcasting technologies if it hopes to enhance racing's value to sponsors.
The value of motorsport sponsorship is often harder to quantify than the value of sponsorship in other media, yet some fear that a more definitive analysis of racing sponsorship might expose some myths.
Car companies : In the past, automakers have frequently changed their level of involvement in a wide variety of motorsport series. This results in an unstable future business environment for teams and race organizers. To maximize the benefit of their motorsport programs, automakers must forge much closer connections between their race cars and their retail products in the minds of consumers. Even with wins on the track, the key to image enhancement through racing lies in the entire process, from design to dealership. The "win on Sunday, sell on Monday" attitude is shortsighted. The benefits of motorsport involvement are more complex and involve the long-term development of consumer loyalty.
Automakers gain access to new technologies from small specialist motorsport companies that are highly adaptable and responsive to change. Automaker ownership of these companies could slow them down.
Motorsport engineering and manufacturing: Some of the small specialist engineering and manufacturing firms may become more aggressive in mergers and acquisitions to sustain growth and to eventually go public. Those not as bold may find organic growth difficult to generate.
Opportunities to expand related businesses (e.g., selling design-engineering services to automakers and Tier One suppliers, developing performance products for the aftermarket) will require an adjustment from making one-off parts to producing much higher volumes.
Track owners and series organizers: How the growing revenues from broadcasting are shared among organizers, track owners and teams will likely become a more contentious issue as the pot grows. The major track owners can grow by adding seats and raising prices-as long as they can lure the big races. Smaller independent tracks may become acquisition targets as the major companies use their financial muscle to grow and increase shareholder value.
Problems such as bad weather and accidents on the track can hurt profits and image.
As motorsport continues to grow, those involved in the industry must remember that racing is an entertainment business that just happens to be based around cars and car culture. Innovations in broadcasting and Internet technology can help create new ways for consumers to be involved and strengthen the commercial viability of racing. However, the delicate balance among the interests of race organizers, automakers, teams, suppliers and broadcast media must be maintained if racing is to become a truly world-class industry.
Importance of Formula 1 racing to Automakers
The overriding factor for having a presence in F1 for any automobile company is the commercial exposure and for image boosting. The second big factor is the clear path and the clear aim to create technology transfer from F1 to road cars. The racing spirit is another factor for the involvement .
Formula 1 is the pinnacle of motor sport because of the R&D involved. Formula 1 racing advancement and research has also helped the commercial automobile industry. Though automakers cannot take over any single part from a F1 engine to a road car engine but they can transfer technology. Automakers built own F1 parts and manufacturing plants and the trick is that these units are run by the respected departments who do the road car parts as well so they have high speed technology and what they learn from F1 can immediately be taken over to the road car side. It is also obvious that the determination of the company to seek competitiveness in the worldwide formula like Formula 1 obliges them to go deeper in understanding and engineering. This knowledge is part of the company assets and will be obviously used at any request for modifying or improving normal road cars.
The fascinating thing about F1 is high technology, but even more the speed of development. You get a lot of resources, you really can turn your ideas into reality very quickly and you get the response every other week, which is very unusual and it's a really rewarding situation.
Winning the constructors championship means a lot for the manufacturer, the constructors championship is very important because in the end any automobile company is in F1 to demonstrate their competence in technology, innovation, speed and so for then it has equal importance to the drivers' championship.
The technology in racing becomes updated and remodeled each year which will ultimately see its way into the consumer world. The reason for having such strict technical regulations in F1 is to deliberately limit performance, not to make the racing boring to watch or to participate in, but to make it safe for everyone involved. The F1 technical regulations encourage the achievement of excellence in one area of car performance at a time. This allows F1 to be the pinnacle of car design and technology, thus making it the testing ground of choice of the major car manufacturers, while at the same time keeping a limit on what can be achieved so that performance gains are explored and tested gradually and safely. Once a performance peak or plateau is achieved, it is deliberately limited or banned, with the technology being passed on to other sectors of car design and production, so that F1 can move on to explore the next area of performance excellence.
The aim for any automobile company to enter in F1 is to is to change the image and promote the sale of their cars. Mercedes' aim of entering to Formula 1 was to change their image and target the segment of young people to sell their sports car and in fact since their involvement in Formula 1 the sale of their cars has boosted. There is now market research that shows that car companies which benefit from being in Formula 1 without winning anything and this means that the likelihood of car manufacturers deciding to get out of the sport because they are not being successful is less likely than was the case a few years ago. Toyota has found a big increase in interest thanks to F1 and also Jaguar had seen a significant increase in brand awareness and sales since its F1 program began.
Set against the figures we've heard being tossed around the place in recent months with reference to car company profits - we can believe Bernie Ecclestone's confident assertion that investing in F1 is a bargain. And that's nothing new. Around a decade ago Honda pulled out of Formula 1 racing but it didn't take long for them to realize that they wouldn't get as good a bang for the buck with anything else as they could with F1and Honda was back in the Formula 1 racing.
The world's vehicle manufacturers have always had a hand in racing. But the nature of their involvement is changing. For automakers to capitalize on their motorsport programs, it is not only essential that they win races, they must also create a meaningful link between success on the track and the retail experience. A recent example shows how car companies can find innovative ways to do this. Ford purchased the Stewart Grand Prix team and renamed it Jaguar Racing to promote its global luxury brand. DaimlerChrysler purchased a 40 percent stake in the TAG McLaren (just Mclaren now) team that uses Mercedes-Benz engines (built by Ilmor in the UK), and BMW purchased a stake in Williams Grand Prix, which now uses BMW engines. The reason for much of this investment is the image enhancement automakers gain from participating. The diversity of racing series allows automakers to strengthen their images in selected demographics segments.
What about the remaining auto manufactures who are not in F1?
At present seven major auto manufacturers are involved in Formula 1 as a full fledge team or as an engine supplier. Ferrari, BMW, DaimlerChrysler (Mercedes), Renault, Toyota, Honda, Ford (also as Jaguar),but still there are some major auto manufacturers who are not involved in Formula1 racing. The reality is that Formula 1 is now so expensive that any of the remaining auto makers has to think properly before they involve them in this. Being in Formula 1 for a worldwide company is a challenge since if you don't win, you contribute in destroying your image. Peugeot has already tried Formula 1and failed dramatically and its sister company Citroen will have learned from that. Mitsubishi is controlled by DaimlerChrysler and it makes no sense to compete with Mercedes-Benz; Ford has Jaguar in F1 and has a low-key involvement with Jordan; Subaru is partially owned by General Motors, which shows no interest in F1 and Skoda is a Volkswagen brand and if the German firm were going to enter into Formula 1 racing then it would almost certainly use the Audi brand and in recent times there has been a lot of rumors that Volkswagen is planning to be involved in Formula 1 racing.
The interesting one is Hyundai but the Korean firm has not done well in other motorsports like WRC(world rally championship) and recently the management of the company has changed and so it is still a bit early for new policies. In the past Hyundai expressed an interest in F1 on several occasions and was even rumored to have had an Formula 1 prototype engine on the test beds in the late 1990s. It was involved in a plan to build a racing circuit in Korea. It has ambitions to become a world class car company and its sales are booming. Hyundai is pushing hard to expand its overseas operations with the stated aim being to become one of the top five car companies in the world by 2010.But to achieve this Hyundai has to make a mark on the pinnacle of motor sport which is known as Formula 1
As F1 becomes the testing ground of multinational car companies to an even greater extent than it already is in the 2000s, the technical accomplishments of F1 will no doubt be even more tightly controlled. Environmental concerns will become more important in relation to racing, and the FIA's leadership in developing clean fuels for internal combustion engines and fuel and power alternatives for racing cars in the coming years will ensure that F1 has a future as a sport and as a technical exercise in the face of growing governmental regulations of emissions and other environmental concerns.
None of this will limit the spectacle or the charisma of F1. Its place at the pinnacle of automotive, and advanced technological materials and electronics, development, is not in dispute. Neither is its reputation as the most innovative, stylish and sophisticated form of racing.
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B. Formula 1 for India
Technology, speed, innovation, reliability, imagination and fast reactions: that's what Formula 1 is all about. That's what makes this sport so special and so attractive for millions of fans all around the world. Formula 1 cars represent the very summit of automotive technology, while their fearless drivers are international stars who influence and excite the imaginations of fans around the globe.
Every two weeks, from March till late October, an estimated more than 400 million viewers in 150 countries watch 20 cars racing at one of 18 circuits (19 from 2005 onwards) around the world. With a cumulative annual audience of more than five billion, Formula 1 is the most-watched sport on television. Only the Olympics and the Soccer World Cup attract more viewers, and they take place only once every four years. Grand Prix event is shown live in 150 countries, delayed transmission in 131 countries before considering the enormous coverage given by 24 hour and cable stations where repeat broadcasting is at a premium. Motor car manufacturing and its associated business, is the third largest industry in the world, and Formula 1 represents the pinnacle of its technology, with quite literally fast moving development on the race track for all the world to see.
Grand Prix are not only a valuable research and development laboratory for the world's leading car manufacturers but they are also a sensational sporting spectacle. Competition between drivers and teams is intense, and there is a super-charged atmosphere at every race.
For all these reasons, Formula 1 has come to be associated not only with sporting distinction but also with glamour, prestige and big business. The rewards for those associated with Formula 1, whether the teams, the sponsors or the host countries, have become highly lucrative in recent years.
The investment on the track alone is expected to be around US$120 million; the total investment , US$400 million which includes a state of the art international airport capacity of handling seven Jumbos at a time; a six lane highway to the track, an estimated 7,000 plus five-star rooms , and customs clearance in hours ,not days.
In addition to spectators, over 2,500 technicians and engineers accompany the racing teams and bring in multiple cars for each driver. This entails flying in 250 jumbo 747 aircraft loads of cargo for the event.
The money generated by Formula 1 is more than any other sport in the world. According to estimates by management consultants ,the project would create over 70,000 direct and indirect jobs. As it develops, Formula 1 will become a more non-Indian event, bringing in investment from overseas and attracting new businesses here. India is the ideal location for Formula 1 - it is already a heavy business centre with international recognition and strong opportunities to develop its tourist industry. The people attracted to visit motor races are well off and like to combine a holiday with the race. That 77 percent of attendance is non-local instantly spells nirvana for the tourism industry. India should take advantage of this and build its tourist industry to a high level.
India has much to offer the keen investor and has many notable attractions, but nothing on the size and scale of a Grand Prix. If India is looking to expand its global image more , then staging a Formula 1 Grand Prix is about the best way to do it.
For sure a Grand Prix event will change the image of this country. Staging a Grand Prix is a means for India to enter the largely untapped Indian sports tourism market. Typically a Formula 1 races attracts at least 100,000 spectators to flock to each high-adrenaline, high-octane, incident-packed race. There will also be other racing events, which will attract more spectators on a regular basis, giving a boost to the country's tourism and hospitality industries.
India's already stable infrastructure will be expanded as international visitor numbers rise. It will also bring in luxury hotels of international chains, PGA standard golf courses, retails stores, amusement parks, speciality hospitals and city's image where Grand Prix will be staged will get a ballistic push. Only 19 cities in the world have the distinction of hosting the F1 race. As a whole, India will be put firmly and squarely on the world map.
There are advantages for Formula 1 too. Traditionally Europe is the dominant force in the F1 calendar but the sponsors associated with Formula 1 want the races to happen in growing markets and Europe isn't a growing market. As per the current economic scenario Europe will be part of the third world in 10 years, while Asia and America will be dominating the world. So it wants to expand its global image by gaining a foothold in the South East Asia, and there is no other location with the exotic undertones that India has to offer. Currently India is one of the most economically booming country in the world and as such India has the financial muscle to build the amenities that Formula 1 requires, and there are endless potential sponsors in the financial sector.
If the plans come to fruition, India and Formula 1 will enjoy a happy alliance that could be of enormous benefit to this sub continent, focusing world attention on the region and creating new business opportunities.
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